Background: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for femoropopliteal lesions in peripheral artery disease has been performed in patients undergoing hemodialysis as well as in the general population. Cilostazol, a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, has been reported to reduce target lesion revascularization after PTA for femoropopliteal lesions in the general population. Objective: This study investigated the effects of cilostazol use on long-term patency after PTA in patients with femoropopliteal disease undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: In this retrospective study, data from patients undergoing hemodialysis who underwent successful PTA for femoropopliteal disease, defined as a final luminal diameter stenosis <30% without angiographically visual arterial dissection and no in-hospital complications, were included. One study group received long-term treatment with oral cilostazol 100 mg BID after PTA; the control group did not. The duration of follow-up was ≤6 years. The primary outcome of interest was cumulative patency, as measured by the event-free rate 6 years after PTA, with event defined as restenosis of >50% of the vessel diameter in femoropopliteal lesions. Data on baseline characteristics, patency, and covariates (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, coronary artery disease, critical limb ischemia, TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus classification, and stenting) were obtained from electronic medical records and telephone interviews with patients. To minimize the effects of selection bias for cilostazol administration, a propensity-matched analysis using Cox univariate and multivariate models including the previously mentioned covariates was conducted. The propensity scores of the 2 groups were matched 1:1 (AUC = 0.69 [receiving operating characteristics analysis]). Data were obtained from electronic medical records and telephone interviews with patients by trained personnel who were blinded to treatment assignment. Results: A total of 358 consecutive lesions of 174 patients undergoing hemodialysis were included (103 men, 71 women; mean [SD] age, 66  years; cilostazol group, 61 patients, 121 lesions; control group, 113 patients, 237 lesions). The mean duration of follow-up was 37 (27) months. The 6-year event-free rate of restenosis of >50% of the vessel diameter was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the control group (72/121 [59.5%] vs 120/237 [50.6%]; P = 0.005 [logrank test]; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.45-0.88; P = 0.008 [Cox univariate analysis]). Also, event-free rates of target lesion revascularization and limb amputation were significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the control group (40/61 [65.6%] vs 57/113 [50.4%]; P = 0.013 [log-rank test] and 54/61 [88.5%] vs 90/113 [79.6%]; P = 0.047 [logrank test], respectively). On propensity score matching (105 lesions), the baseline characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups. The 6-year eventfree rate of restenosis was significantly higher in the cilostazol group than in the control group (66/105 [62.9%] vs 52/105 [49.5%]; HR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.88; P = 0.012 [Cox univariate analysis]). On propensity-matched (Cox multivariate) analysis, cilostazol (HR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.27-0.84; P = 0.008), age (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01–1.04; P = 0.031), and critical limb ischemia (HR = 2.21; 95% CI, 1.39-3.53; P = 0.001) were independent predictors of restenosis. None of the patients in the cilostazol group discontinued cilostazol treatment during the follow-up period. Four patients (6.6%) experienced mild headache. Conclusion: This study found that in these patients with femoropopliteal lesions in peripheral artery disease who were undergoing hemodialysis, those treated with cilostazol 100 mg BID after PTA had a higher mean rate of cumulative patency after PTA than those in the control group.
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