Background: Pulmonary MRI with ultrashort echo time (UTE) has been compared with chest CT for nodule detection and classification. However, direct comparisons of these methods' capabilities for Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System (LungRADS) evaluation remain lacking. Purpose: To compare the capabilities of pulmonary MRI with UTE with those of standard- or low-dose thin-section CT for LungRADS classification. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, standard- and low-dose chest CT (270 mA and 60 mA, respectively) and MRI with UTE were used to examine consecutive participants enrolled between January 2017 and December 2020 who met American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria for lung cancer screening with low-dose CT. Probability of nodule presence was assessed for all methods with a five-point visual scoring system by two board-certified radiologists. All nodules were then evaluated in terms of their Lung-RADS classification using each method. To compare nodule detection capability of the three methods, consensus for performances was rated by using jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis, and sensitivity was compared by means of the McNemar test. In addition, weighted k statistics were used to determine the agreement between Lung-RADS classification obtained with each method and the reference standard generated from standard-dose CT evaluated by two radiologists who were not included in the image analysis session. Results: A total of 205 participants (mean age: 64 years ± 7 [standard deviation], 106 men) with 1073 nodules were enrolled. Figure of merit (FOM) (P < .001) had significant differences among three modalities (standard-dose CT: FOM = 0.91, low-dose CT: FOM = 0.89, pulmonary MRI with UTE: FOM = 0.94), with no evidence of false-positive findings in participants with all modalities (P >.05). Agreements for Lung-RADS classification between all modalities and the reference standard were almost perfect (standard-dose CT: κ = 0.82, P < .001; low-dose CT: κ = 0.82, P < .001; pulmonary MRI with UTE: κ = 0.82, P < .001). Conclusion: In a lung cancer screening population, ultrashort echo time pulmonary MRI was comparable to standard- or low-dose CT for Lung CT Screening Reporting and Data System classification.
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