Objective: Helicobacter pylori eradication is expected to prevent gastric cancer. However, morphological alterations after eradication often hinder accurate diagnosis. Therefore, we evaluated endoscopic and histological changes in gastric tumors after eradication of H. pylori in a time-dependent manner. Methods: We classified 144 cases of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancer into the following categories: (i) patients positive for H. pylori with no eradication history, (ii) patients positive for H. pylori who underwent ESD 2 months after eradication, (iii) patients negative for H. pylori with an eradication history of at least 6 months before ESD, and (iv) patients negative for H. pylori with an unknown history. We compared endoscopic and histological factors between the groups. Results: The characteristics of cancers positive for H. pylori were exploding shape, superficial high-grade atypical epithelium, and a surface proliferating zone. H. pylori eradication induced a series of endoscopic and histological changes, including shape -depression, appearance of surface regenerative and lower-grade atypical epithelium, and a downward shift of the proliferative zone within a period as short as 2 months. Conclusion: H. pylori eradication rapidly causes cancer regression and leads to tumor shrinkage, diminished atypism, and shortened proliferative zone, resulting in drastic morphological changes.
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