A new material, an emulsion of poly(vinyl acetate) was experimentally developed and clinically used to overcome several disadvantages in currently used liquid embolisation materials. The emulsion microparticles, 0.3-0.7 μm in size, possessed cationic charge on the surface and hence aggregated immediately on contact with fluids containing anions. This inert polymer has the advantage that it does not induce a deleterious reaction in living tissue. Moreover, its medium is water and it is not adhesive, like the cyanoacrylates. Several concentrations of emulsion were injected into the renal arteries of dogs. For the investigation of tissue reactions and the possibility of recanalisation, the emulsion was injected into rats both subcutaneously and into the renal arteries. The renal artery injections in dogs showed adequate radiopacity and consistent complete occlusion. The lower the concentration of the emulsion, the smaller the arteries which could be occluded. Even at very low concentrations, however, venous occlusion did not occur. Histological study of the embolised rat kidney revealed no detectable damage in the vessel wall and no recanalisation for up to 6 months. The subcutaneously injected PVAc emulsion elicited mononuclear cell infiltration and gradual centripetal fibrosis, without any deleterious effect on the surrounding tissue. A cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was embolised using the material. Histology of the resected nidus showed findings similar to those in the animal experiments.
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