We examined factors related to dietary intake status (food form) of long-term care facility (LTCF) residents to identify factors related to proper food form choice for older individuals requiring nursing care. We surveyed 888 residents from 37 LTCFs in Japan. We evaluated basic information (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), food form (swallowing-adjusted diet class), Barthel Index (BI), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), simply evaluated eating and swallowing functions, the number of present/functional teeth, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST), and modified water swallowing test. To clarify factors associated with food form, participants who had good nutrition by oral intake were categorized into the dysphagic diet (DD) and normal diet (ND) groups. Multi-level analyses were used to detect oral functions associated with food form status. Among objective assessments, BMI (odds ratio [OR] 0.979, 95% confidence interval [CI] − 0.022- to 0.006, p = 0.001), BI (OR 0.993, 95% CI − 0.007 to − 0.004, p < 0.001), CDR 3.0 (OR 1.002, 95% CI 0.002‒0.236, p = 0.046), present teeth (OR 0.993, 95% CI − 0.007 to − 0.001, p = 0.011), functional teeth (OR 0.989, 95% CI − 0.011 to − 0.005, p < 0.001), and RSST (OR 0.960, 95% CI − 0.041 to − 0.007, p = 0.006) were significantly associated with DD vs ND discrimination. Simple evaluations of coughing (OR 1.056, 0.054‒0.198, p = 0.001) and rinsing (OR 1.010, 0.010‒0.174, p = 0.029) could also discriminate food form status. These simple evaluations provide insight into the discrepancies between food form status and eating abilities of LTCF residents. Periodic evaluations by the nursing caregiver may help to prevent aspiration by older individuals with dysphagia.
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