Purpose: To assess the risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) post-abdominal surgery in neonates. Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study was conducted using patient data from 2009 to 2018. Patient characteristics and several variables were analyzed to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results: SSI occurred in 39/406 procedures (9.6%). Univariate analysis showed that the incidence of SSI was significantly higher in patients who had undergone multiple surgical procedures (P = 0.032), prolonged operations (P = 0.016), long-term hospitalization (P < 0.001), long-term antibiotic administration (P < 0.001), with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization (P = 0.044), contaminated/dirty wounds (P < 0.001), and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of 3 or 4 (P = 0.021). Multivariate analysis identified prolonged operations [odds ratio (OR): 2.91 (1.21–8.01)] and contaminated/dirty wounds [OR: 5.42 (2.41–12.1)] as independent risk factors. Patients with SSI had a higher incidence of MRSA colonization (27.8% vs. 14.8%, P = 0.044), longer antibiotic administration (24 days vs. 8 days, P = 0.049), and longer hospitalization times (98 days vs. 43 days, P = 0.007) than those without SSIs. Conclusions: Long operations exceeding 100 min and surgical procedures with contaminated/dirty wounds are independent risk factors for neonatal SSIs after abdominal surgery. SSIs were related to MRSA colonization during hospitalization, long-term antibiotic administration, and long-term hospitalization.
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