Purpose: The use of higher frequencies in ultrasound allows for a more detailed image. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of delineating the gastrointestinal wall using a 60-MHz miniature ultrasound probe. Methods: A phantom study was performed using a multipurpose ultrasonic phantom model, and the depth of imaging was evaluated using 60-MHz and 20-MHz miniature probes and 7.5-MHz conventional convex-type endoscopic ultrasonography. A total of 25 visualized areas from a total of 16 specimens from 16 patients were enrolled. The structures of the layers of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were evaluated using a 60-MHz probe and a pathological specimen created from endoscopically or surgically resected specimens. Results: The 60-MHz probe was able to render to a depth of 2 mm and visualize the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum in five layers, respectively, within the depiction range. The depiction ranges of the 20-MHz probe and 7.5-MHz conventional endoscopic ultrasonography were 5 mm and 60 mm, respectively. The 60-MHz probe visualized the muscularis mucosae as the fourth layer in the esophagus, the fourth layer in the stomach, and the second layer in the duodenum. Muscularis mucosae were delineated in almost all cases, except in two cases where the layered structure disappeared. Conclusion: The 60-MHz probe provided good visualization of the muscularis mucosae and structure of the layers down to the submucosa, which improves the ability to diagnose the depth of early cancer invasion of the upper gastrointestinal tract, leading to more appropriate treatments.
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