Recent case reports have shown that endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) for mediastinal lesions is sometimes accompanied by severe infectious complications. Here, we report 3 cases with refractory febrile complications following EBUS-TBNA for intra-pulmonary large mass lesion of lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma, n=2; adenocarcinoma, n=1). After the EBUS-TBNA, all cases showed prolonged fever and systemic inflammation despite receiving a sufficient dose of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The presence of a low-density area inside the masses upon CT examination, suggesting necrosis, may be a predictive sign of febrile complications associated with EBUS-TBNA.
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