Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term clinical outcome of young women with malignant transformation arising from mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (MT-MCT) by comparing radical surgery and fertility-sparing surgery (FSS). Patients and methods: All patients treated with radical surgery or FSS for MT-MCT in multiple institutions were registered in this analysis. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate clinical outcome, including overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results: From 1986 to 2016, 62 patients with MT-MCT were treated in our group. The median follow-up period was 38.0 (2.0-227.9) months, and the median age was 54 (17-82) years old. Multivariate analysis revealed that only advanced stage was significantly correlated with poorer prognosis of patients [hazard ratio (HR) for death: 6.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82-24.78, P = 0.0048; HR for recurrence: 5.59, 95% CI: 1.52-21.83, P = 0.01]. Of a total of 13 women with stage I-II disease at less than 45 years old, 7 were treated with FSS, and there was no recurrence except for in one woman with stage II MT-MCT. There was no significant difference in long-term oncological outcome between radical surgery and FSS. Conclusion: FSS may be indicated for patients with stage I MT-MCT, who hope to preserve fertility, as no relapse was found after FSS.
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