Background: Data on FOLFIRINOX as a second-line chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer are limited. In the JASPAC06 study—a nationwide, multicenter, observational study—FOLFIRINOX for patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer as any line of treatment showed favorable efficacy and safety in Japanese clinical practice. Methods: We performed exploratory analyses of patients with unresectable or recurrent pancreatic cancer who received FOLFIRINOX as the second-line chemotherapy in Japanese clinical settings. Results: Of the 399 evaluable patients, 44 were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The patients’ characteristics were as follows: median age, 62 years; men, 26 (59%); Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance status 0/1, 30 (68%)/14 (32%); disease status, recurrent/local/metastatic: 4 (9%)/8 (18%)/32 (73%). The initial dose was reduced in 28 (64%) patients. The median time to treatment failure and number of cycles were 4.5 (range, 0.2–19.1) months and 6 cycles (range, 1–13 or more), respectively. The major grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia in 29 (66%), leucopenia in 17 (39%), anorexia in 7 (16%), febrile neutropenia in 5 (11%), and anemia in 5 (11%) patients. The median overall survival, progression-free survival, and 1-year survival rates were 10.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2–13.3), 4.1 (95% CI, 2.6–5.5) months, and 30%, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that FOLFIRINOX as a second-line chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer was effective in patients with a good performance status. It displayed toxicity similar to that observed with its use as a first-line treatment.
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