Information on immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced vasculitides is limited, and predictors for this condition have not been identified. Therefore, we have examined the frequency of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced vasculitides by analyzing the data recorded in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. Data from April 2004 to March 2020 were extracted, and vasculitides as an immune-related adverse event was defined according to the 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides. Adverse event signals were recognized as significant when the reporting odds ratio estimates and lower limits of the corresponding 95% confidence intervals exceeded 1. The use of nivolumab showed a significant signal for vasculitides. Furthermore, significant signals of polymyalgia rheumatica were found when the patients were treated with nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and ipilimumab. In addition, the frequencies of nivolumab- and pembrolizumab-induced polymyalgia rheumatica were higher in patients aged ≥70 years and female patients, respectively. Polymyalgia rheumatica was reported in 38 patients treated with nivolumab; 31 (82%) of these were either in recovery or in remission. Further, polymyalgia rheumatica was reported in 17 patients treated with pembrolizumab; 13 (76%) of these were in recovery or remission, while three (18%) were not. Polymyalgia rheumatica was reported in 12 patients treated with ipilimumab; seven (58%) of these were in recovery or remission. Our study highlights that careful monitoring for the symptom of PMR (e.g., bilateral pain in shoulder and pelvic girdles) is required when the patients are aged >70 years and have been treated with nivolumab and when the patients are women and have been treated with pembrolizumab.
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