Objectives: By using data from the CEDMIC trial (n = 413), we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the diagnostic value of biomarker monitoring and chest computed tomography (CT) scans for the early detection of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in neutropenic hematological patients. Methods: IFDs were defined in accordance with the EORTC/MSG definition with some modifications. Biomarkers such as Aspergillus galactomannan (GM) and (1→3)-β-D-glucan (βDG) were measured weekly. Results: The positive predictive value (PPV) of GM and βDG in cases of high-risk treatment were 0.70 and 0.69, while those in low-risk treatment were 0.08 and 0, respectively. All of the positive biomarkers that were measured before the development of fever in low-risk treatment were false positives. The proportion of patients who had abnormal chest CT findings was 19% in persistent fever at 4–6 days, 57% at 7 days or later and 36% in recurrent fever. Sixty-nine percent of the patients who had abnormal findings at 7 days or later did not have abnormalities at 4–6 days. Conclusions: Afebrile screening of biomarkers in low-risk treatment is not useful. Chest CT should be reevaluated in persistent fever lasting for 7 days or longer even in patients who did not have abnormalities within 6 days.
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