Acquisition or loss of flying ability is evolutionarily linked with maximum life span (MLS) in mammals and birds. Although ecological factors, such as extrinsic mortality, may lead to either shortened or extended life spans through natural selection, MLS is influenced by complex molecular and metabolic processes, and the genetic changes associated with flying ability that have led to either a longer or shorter MLS are unknown. Here, we examine the parallel evolution of flight in mammals and birds and investigate positively selected genes at branches where either the acquisition (in little brown bats and large flying foxes) or loss (in Adélie penguins, emperor penguins, common ostriches, emus, great spotted kiwis, little spotted kiwis, okarito brown kiwis, greater rheas, lesser rheas, and cassowaries) of flight abilities occurred. Although we found no shared genes under selection among all the branches of interest, 7 genes were found to be positively selected in 2 of the branches. Among the 7 genes, only IGF2BP2 is known to affect both life span and energy expenditure. The positively selected mutations detected in IGF2BP2 likely affected the functionality of the encoded protein. IGF2BP2, which has been reported to simultaneously prolong life span and increase energy expenditure, could be responsible for the evolution of shortened MLS associated with the loss of flying ability.
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