An anticonvulsant, carbamazepine (CBZ), is known to show incidences of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS). To identify a gene(s) susceptible to CBZ-induced cADRs, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 53 subjects with the CBZ-induced cADRs, including SJS, TEN and DIHS, and 882 subjects of a general population in Japan. Among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed in the GWAS, 12 SNPs showed significant association with CBZ-induced cADRs, and rs1633021 showed the smallest P-value for association with CBZ-induced cADRs (P = 1.18 3 10-13). These SNPs were located within a 430 kb linkage disequilibrium block on chromosome 6p21.33, including the HLA-A locus. Thus, we genotyped the individual HLA-A alleles in 61 cases and 376 patients who showed no cADRs by administration of CBZ (CBZ-tolerant controls) and found that HLA-A*3101 was present in 60.7% (37/61) of the patients with CBZ-induced cADRs, but in only 12.5% (47/376) of the CBZ-tolerant controls (odds ratio = 10.8, 95% confidence interval 5.9-19.6, P = 3.64 3 10-15), implying that this allele has the 60.7% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity when we apply HLA-A*3101 as a risk predictor for CBZ-induced cADRs. Although DIHS is clinically distinguished from SJS and TEN, our data presented here have indicated that they share a common genetic factor as well as a common pathophysiological mechanism. Our findings should provide useful information for making a decision of individualized medication of anticonvulsants.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology