Objectives: Hyperchloremia is a potential risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients. However, the relationship between hyperchloremia and postoperative AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) remains unclear. The authors aimed to determine whether postoperative hyperchloremia was associated with postoperative AKI in these populations. Objectives: Retrospective, single-center study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Participants: Adult patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with CPB. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Patients with and without postoperative hyperchloremia were matched (1:1). The primary outcome was the rate of postoperative AKI diagnosed using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes consensus criteria. Postoperative hyperchloremia was defined as postoperative serum chloride levels of >110 mmol/L during the first 48 hours. An increase in serum chloride levels (Δ[Cl–]) was defined as the difference between the preoperative and maximum postoperative serum chloride levels during the first 48 hours ([Cl–]max). Propensity-score matching and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed. A total of 323 patients were included. Propensity-score matching selected 55 pairs for the final comparison. The incidence of postoperative AKI did not differ between the two groups (47% v 46%, p = 1.0). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, Δ[Cl–] was associated independently with the development of postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.21; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Exposure to postoperative hyperchloremia was not associated with postoperative AKI in adult patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with CPB. However, an increase in the serum chloride level might be associated with postoperative AKI.
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