Background Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe form, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes, including the ocular surface, oral cavity, and genitals. These reactions are very rare but are often associated with inciting drugs, infectious agents, or both. Objective We sought to identify susceptibility loci for cold medicine-related SJS/TEN (CM-SJS/TEN) with severe mucosal involvement (SMI). Methods A genome-wide association study was performed in 808 Japanese subjects (117 patients with CM-SJS/TEN with SMI and 691 healthy control subjects), and subsequent replication studies were performed in 204 other Japanese subjects (16 cases and 188 control subjects), 117 Korean subjects (27 cases and 90 control subjects), 76 Indian subjects (20 cases and 56 control subjects), and 174 Brazilian subjects (39 cases and 135 control subjects). Results In addition to the most significant susceptibility region, HLA-A, we identified IKZF1, which encodes Ikaros, as a novel susceptibility gene (meta-analysis, rs4917014 [G vs T]; odds ratio, 0.5; P = 8.5 × 10-11). Furthermore, quantitative ratios of the IKZF1 alternative splicing isoforms Ik1 and Ik2 were significantly associated with rs4917014 genotypes. Conclusion We identified IKZF1 as a susceptibility gene for CM-SJS/TEN with SMI not only in Japanese subjects but also in Korean and Indian subjects and showed that the Ik2/Ik1 ratio might be influenced by IKZF1 single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were significantly associated with susceptibility to CM-SJS/TEN with SMI.
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