ABO blood groups have been implicated as potential risk factors for various diseases. However, no study has investigated the association between sepsis mortality and ABO blood types. We aimed to evaluate the impact of these blood types on mortality in patients with sepsis and septic shock. This retrospective observational study was conducted at two general hospitals in Japan. Patients diagnosed with sepsis or septic shock were included and divided into four groups based on blood type (O, A, B, and AB). The association between type O vs. other types and 28- and 90-day mortalities was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and Sequential (Sepsis-related) Organ Failure Assessment score. This study included 415 patients, of whom 131 (31.6%), 171 (41.2%), 81 (19.5%), and 32 (7.7%) had type O, A, B, and AB, respectively. Blood type O was not associated with 28-day (odds ratio: 1.7 p = 0.08) or 90-day mortality (odds ratio: 1.53, p = 0.091). However, type O was significantly associated with higher 90-day mortality (odds ratio: 3.26, p = 0.009) in patients with septic shock. The role of ABO blood type in risk stratification for septic shock and the mechanisms that potentially affect the prognosis of sepsis patients need further investigation.
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