Sitagliptin has been widely used for the treatment of diabetes and shown recently to have beneficial pleiotropic outcomes on cardiovascular systems in experimental studies. However, little is known about the influence of sitagliptin on atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases in a clinical setting. This study examined the effect of sitagliptin on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). A total of 76 patients with clinically stable and documented coronary artery disease, who were newly diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance or mild type 2 diabetes mellitus, were allocated, randomly, to receive either sitagliptin 100 mg/day or the placebo control. Common carotid IMT, glucose profiles, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and repeated at 12 months. Sitagliptin-treated patients showed less IMT progression than the control group (p = 0.02). In addition, the sitagliptin group showed greater reductions in body weight (2.2%), 2-hour glucose levels on the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (17.3%), HbA 1c (4.7%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (7.9%) from that at baseline. In conclusion, treatment with sitagliptin for 12 months was associated with a beneficial effect in the prevention of carotid IMT progression, compared with the diet control.
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