Background and purpose: To compare the CT-based and CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry after permanent prostate brachytherapy and to evaluate the improvement in CT-based dosimetry by physicians with or without experience in using the CT/MRI fusion method. Patients and methods: Thirty-eight consecutive patients agreed to participate in a prospective study. The prostate contours from CT/MRI fusion are the gold standard for determining the prostate volume and dose volume histogram (DVH). CT-based postimplant dosimetries were performed by two physicians. Observer 1 was a radiologist who had never used CT/MRI fusion method for postimplant dosimetric analysis. Observer 2 was a radiation oncologist experienced in postimplant analysis using the CT/MRI fusion method. The prostate dosimetry was evaluated by prostate D90 and V100. Results: No significant difference was observed in the mean prostate volumes between the two observers and the CT/MRI fusion data. However, the correlation coefficient value for observer 2 (R 2 = 0.932) was greater than that for observer 1 (R 2 = 0.793). The D90 and V100 values as evaluated by the two observers were significantly underestimated in comparison to those evaluated using the CT/MRI fusion methods. The DVH related parameters were underestimated more frequently by observer 1 than by observer 2: (prostate D90: 99.56% for observer 1, 102.97% for observer 2, 109.37% for CT/MRI fusion. Prostate V100: 88.12% for observer 1, 90.14% for observer 2, 91.91% for CT/MRI fusion). Conclusions: The difference in the mean value in D90 and V100 by observer 1 was significantly greater than that for observer 2. These findings suggest that the CT/MRI fusion method provides accurate feedback which thereby improves CT-based postimplant dosimetry for prostate brachytherapy.
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