It is recognized that d-amphetamine (AMPH)-induced hyperactivity is thought to be a valid animal model of mania. In the present study, we investigated whether a proinflammatory oxidative gene indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is involved in AMPH-induced mitochondrial burden, and whether mood stabilizers (i.e., lithium and valproate) modulate IDO to protect against AMPH-induced mania-like behaviors. AMPH-induced IDO-1 expression was significantly greater than IDO-2 expression in the prefrontal cortex of wild type mice. IDO-1 expression was more pronounced in the mitochondria than in the cytosol. AMPH treatment activated intra-mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation and mitochondrial oxidative burden, while inhibited mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of the mitochondrial complex (I > II), mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, indicating that mitochondrial burden might be contributable to mania-like behaviors induced by AMPH. The behaviors were significantly attenuated by lithium, valproate, or IDO-1 knockout, but not in IDO-2 knockout mice. Lithium, valproate administration, or IDO-1 knockout significantly attenuated mitochondrial burden. Neither lithium nor valproate produced additive effects above the protective effects observed in IDO-1 KO in mice. Collectively, our results suggest that mood stabilizers attenuate AMPH-induced mania-like behaviors via attenuation of IDO-1-dependent mitochondrial stress, highlighting IDO-1 as a novel molecular target for the protective potential of mood stabilizers.
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