Late-onset non-infectious pulmonary complications (LONIPCs) that arise beyond 3 months after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT include bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia (BOOP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS). We retrospectively analyzed the incidence and outcome of LONIPCs among pediatric hematopoietic SCT recipients. We included 97 patients who survived for more than 3 months among the 114 who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic SCT between April 1997 and May 2007. Of the 97 enrolled patients, 10 (10.3%) developed LONIPCs at a median of 187 days after hematopoietic SCT (range, 123-826 days). Of the 10 patients with LONIPCs, eight had BO and two had IPS. Multivariate analysis showed that the onset of LONIPCs was associated with high-risk underlying disease and extensive chronic GVHD (hazard ratio, 5.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-21.7) and hazard ratio, 11.7 (95% confidence interval, 2.40-57.1), respectively). Only two patients responded to therapy with steroids and six of the 10 patients died. The 5-year OS rate was significantly lower among patients with, than without LONIPCs (28.0 vs 87.2%, P = 0.000). Considering that we are lacking optimal therapies for LONIPCs, strategies aimed at the prevention of LONIPCs should be attempted.
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