Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a low-carbohydrate staple food (i.e., low-carbohydrate bread) on glucose and lipid metabolism and pancreatic and enteroendocrine hormone secretion in comparison with meals containing normal-carbohydrate bread, without consideration of the carbohydrate content of the side dishes. Methods: T2DM patients (n = 41) were provided meals containing low-carbohydrate bread (LB) together with side dishes or normal-carbohydrate bread (NB) together with side dishes every other day as a breakfast. Blood glucose levels were evaluated by using a continuous glucose monitoring system; blood samples were collected before and 1 and 2 h after the breakfast. Results: Postprandial blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and plasma triglyceride were significantly lower and plasma glucagon levels were significantly higher in LB compared with those in NB. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels did not differ in the LB and NB groups. Conclusions: These results indicate that changing only the carbohydrate content of the staple food has benefits on glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM patients concomitant with the decrease of insulin and GIP secretion, which ameliorate body weight gain and insulin resistance.
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