Background: Locomotive syndrome is a condition in which the ability to lead a normal life is restricted owing to a dysfunction in one or more of the parts of the musculoskeletal system. Although lumbar spinal canal stenosis (LSS) is considered to cause locomotive syndrome, a detailed assessment of the association between two pathologies has not yet been reported. Methods: The clinical data of patients aged > 65 years old who planned to undergo surgery for LSS at multiple institutions were prospectively collected from April 2016 to August 2017. A total of 200 participants comprising 120 men and 80 women were enrolled in this study. Association of severity of LSS evaluated by Zurich Claudication Questionnaire scores with three locomotive syndrome risk tests (Stand-up Test, the Two-step Test, and a 25-question risk assessment) and Timed Up-and-Go Test were evaluated. Results: In the total assessment of locomotive syndrome, 96.5% of the participants were diagnosed as grade 2, and the remaining 3.5% were diagnosed as grade 1. When the participants were divided into 3 groups according to the LSS severity, the scores of all locomotive syndrome risk tests were significantly worse with increasing LSS severity. Logistic regression analysis revealed that LSS severity was positively correlated with the risk level of locomotive syndrome evaluated by the Two-step Test (OR = 3.45, CI = 1.33–8.96). Conclusions: All LSS patients with surgical indications were diagnosed as having locomotive syndrome. In addition, our results indicated that LSS severity is potentially associated with the progression of locomotive syndrome. The treatment of LSS may be beneficial in alleviating the risk for locomotive syndrome.
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