Rhabdoid tumor (RT) of the central nervous system is an uncommon and aggressive neoplasm that usually affects pediatric patients. Currently, these tumors are classified as malignant RT or atypical teratoid/RT. Another entity of intraparenchymal brain tumor with a rhabdoid component is the extremely rare rhabdoid glioblastoma. A 23-year-old woman presented with a malignant RT in the right thalamus. The tumor was adjacent to the right lateral ventricle and was partially resected. Histological examination revealed prominent proliferation of rhabdoid cells, which is consistent with a diagnosis of malignant RT; the typical features of glioblastoma were not observed. The tumor cells stained positively for integrase interactor-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Therefore, the tumor may have originated from glial components. Genetic analysis using comparative genomic hybridization showed a deoxyribonucleic acid copy-number gain on chromosome 7 but not on chromosome 22. The tumor did not respond to chemotherapy or radiotherapy, and the patient survived for only 4 months after surgery. The present case of malignant RTs shows certain similarities with those of rhabdoid glioblastoma. Further accumulation and analysis of data, including data from genetic analyses, may lead to the identification of a new type of malignant RT.
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