Renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is the absence or poor development of the renal proximal tubules caused by gene mutations in the renin-angiotensin system. Although RTD has been considered fatal, improving neonatal intensive care management has enhanced survival outcomes. However, little has been reported on the survival of extremely preterm infants. This study reports the survival of an extremely preterm infant with RTD and discusses the appropriate management of RTD by reviewing the literature. A female infant weighing 953 g was delivered at 27 weeks’ gestation by Cesarean section because of oligohydramnios. She exhibited severe persistent pulmonary hypertension, severe systemic hypotension, and renal dysfunction shortly after birth. Respiratory management was successfully undertaken using nitric oxide inhalation and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Desmopressin was effective in maintaining her blood pressure and urinary output. She was diagnosed with RTD based on genetic testing, which revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene in exon 18 (c.2689delC; p.Pro897fs) and exon 20 (c.3095dupT; p.Leu1032fs). At 2 years, she started receiving oral fludrocortisone for treating persistently high serum creatinine levels, which was attributed to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus caused by RTD. Subsequently, her urine output decreased, and renal function was successfully maintained. Currently, there is no established treatment for RTD. Considering cases reported to date, treatment with vasopressin and fludrocortisone appears to be most effective for survival and maintenance of renal function in patients with RTD. This study presents the successful management of RTD using this strategy in an extremely preterm infant.
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