Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) consist of main duct (MD) type and branch duct (BD) type. The authors describe their way of thinking regarding diagnostic modalities and management for BD type IPMNs. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) provide high resolution images of main and branch pancreatic ducts. The cases with nodules demonstrated by EUS and/or IDUS regardless of the size are the indication of operation. There were 235 cases with BD type IPMN who underwent EUS and IDUS between April 1991 and June 2005. A total of 94 patients underwent surgical resection and were histopathologically diagnosed (carcinoma, 10 cases; adenoma, 64 cases; hyperplasia, 20 cases). Diagnoses of 79 cases with nodules detected by EUS or IDUS preoperatively were 10 carcinomas, 61 adenomas and eight hyperplasias. Diagnoses of 15 cases without nodules but with symptoms were three adenomas, 12 hyperplasias and no carcinoma. The authors think that the combination of EUS and IDUS is the best way for diagnosing BD type IPMNs in the present state.
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