Small-bowel bleeding accounts for the majority of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, but it is caused by various types of small bowel disease, upper gastrointestinal disease, and colorectal disease. For the diagnosis, history taking and physical examination are required, leading to a determination of what diseases are involved. Next, cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography, should be carried out, followed by the latest enteroscopy such as small bowel capsule endoscopy and deep enteroscopy according to the severity of hemorrhage and patient condition. After a comprehensive diagnosis, medical, enteroscopic, or surgical treatment should be selected. This article reviews recent advances in the endoscopic diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and compares perspectives of the management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in Japan with that in other countries.
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