Patients admitted to the hospital with heart failure (HF) include those with new-onset of acute HF and those with acute exacerbation of chronic HF (CHF). In therapy for new-onset acute HF associated with acute myocardial infarction, therapy to inhibit left ventricular (LV) remodeling in the convalescent phase is required in addition to that needed to overcome the acute phase. Hitherto, CHF therapy was aimed at improving LV contractability, whereas more recently the aim has shifted to resting the heart. Most patients with HF should be routinely managed with a combination of 3 types of drugs: a diuretic; an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and/or an angiotensin II receptor blocker; and a β-blocker. The administration of β-blockers is of particular importance. For HF unresponsive to medical therapy, non-pharmacological therapies are considered. When a HF patient fails to respond to all available therapies, heart transplantation becomes necessary. Of the 1,000 HF patients admitted to our hospital, two cases received heart transplants. 11 cases were indicated for heart transplantation but died before registration. It should be remembered that although in Japan the possibility of receiving a heart transplant is very low, it is by no means entirely impossible.
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