1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VitD3) increases protein and gene expression of phospholipase D1 (PLD1), but not PLD2, in HaCaT human keratinocytes. We show that VitD3 increases PLD1 gene expression through a vitamin D responsive element (VDRE) on the 5′ PLD1 promoter (-260 bp to -246 bp from exon 1). Similar results were obtained by transfecting VitD3 receptor (VDR) into HEK293 cells, which are originally VitD3-unresponsive. Electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assays showed that the complex of VitD3, VDR and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) binds to the VDRE and increases PLD1 gene expression in HaCaT cells.
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