Background:Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common systemic vasculitis syndrome primarily affecting medium-sized arteries, particularly the coronary arteries. Though KD may be associated with immunological problems, the involvement of microRNAs (miRs) has not been fully described.Methods:We enrolled 23 KD patients and 12 controls. We performed miR and mRNA microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from acute KD patients and controls. Continuously, we measured specific miRs, mRNA and the expression of proteins by using reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results:We identified strikingly high levels of miR-182 and miR-296-5p during the acute febrile phase, and of miR-93, miR-145-5p, miR-145-3p, and miR-150-3p in the defervescence stage, especially in refractory KD patients. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA, previously reported to be controlled by miR-93, was significantly elevated during the febrile phase and normalized upon treatment, negatively correlating with the expression of miR-93. Further, plasma levels of VEGF-A correlated with PBMC VEGFA mRNA expression.Conclusion:Several miRs are highly specific to the acute phase of KD, and may participate in regulating the expression of genes in pathways associated with KD. In particular, miR-93 may participate in regulating expression of VEGF-A and contribute to the pathogenesis of arteritis in acute KD.
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