Solitary bone cysts of the lumbar vertebrae are extremely rare. We report a 20-year-old man, who presented with a 5-year history of persistent low back pain. Radiographic examination, magnetic resonance imaging, and subsequent computed tomography revealed a well-circumscribed osteolytic and cystic lesion at the right pedicle of the L3 vertebra. On the basis of the radiologic findings, a simple bone cyst was considered the most probable diagnosis. The patient underwent a minimally invasive operation with the assistance of an endoscope. The gross total curettage resection of the lesion including the cyst walls was accomplished, followed by a combined graft consisting of granulated β-tricalcium phosphate and autologous iliac crest cancellous bone. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient's symptoms were resolved, bone union at the lesion site had been achieved, and he had returned to his previous level of physical activity.
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