We have recently purified to near homogeneity the stimulatory GDP/GTP exchange protein for smg p21s (ras p21-like GTP-binding proteins) from bovine brain cytosol. This regulatory protein, named GDP dissociation stimulator (GDS), stimulates the GDP/GTP exchange reaction of smg p21s by stimulating the dissociation of GDP from and the subsequent binding of GTP to them. In this study, we have isolated and sequenced the cDNA of smg p21 GDS from a bovine brain cDNA library by using an oligonucleotide probe designed from the partial amino acid sequence of the purified smg p21 GDS. The cDNA has an open reading frame encoding a protein of 558 amino acids with a calculated M(r) value of 61,066, similar to the M(r) of 53,000 estimated for the purified smg p21 GDS by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The isolated cDNA is expressed in Escherichia coli, and the encoded protein exhibits smg p21 GDS activity. smg p21 GDS is overall hydrophilic, but there are several short hydrophobic regions. The smg p21 GDS mRNA is present in bovine brain and various rat tissues. smg p21 GDS has low amino acid sequence homology with the yeast CDC25 and SCD25 proteins, which may regulate the GDP/GTP exchange reaction of the yeast RAS2 protein, but not with ras p21 GTPase-activating protein, the inhibitory GDP/GTP exchange proteins (GDP dissociation inhibitor) for smg p25A and rho p21s, and the βγ subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins such as G(s) and G(i).
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