Movements Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles, Nerves, Intermediate Spinal Cord, and Spinal Roots in Anesthetized and Decerebrate Cats

Yoichiro Aoyagi, Vivian K. Mushahwar, Richard B. Stein, Arthur Prochazka

研究成果: Article

30 引用 (Scopus)

抄録

Electrical stimulation offers the possibility of restoring motor function of paralyzed limbs after spinal-cord injury or stroke, but few data are available to compare possible sites of stimulation, such as muscle, nerve, spinal roots, or spinal cord. The aim of this study was to establish some characteristics of stimulation at these sites in the anesthetized and midcollicular decerebrate cat. The hind limb was constrained to move in the sagitral plane against a spring load. Ventral-root stimulation only produced movements down and back; the direction moved systematically backward the more caudal the stimulated roots. In contrast, dorsal-root stimulation only produced movements up and forward. Thus, neither method alone could produce the full range of normal movements. Muscle, nerve, and intraspinal stimulation within the intermediate regions of the gray matter generated discrete, selective movements in a wide range of directions. Muscle stimulation required an order of magnitude more current. Single microwire electrodes located in the spinal gray matter could activate a synergistic group of muscles, and generally had graded recruitment curves, but the direction of movement occasionally changed abruptly as stimulus strength increased. Nerve stimulation produced the largest movements against the spring load (>80% of the passive range of motion) and was the most reproducible from animal to animal. However, recruitment curves with nerve stimulation were quite steep, so fine control of movement might be difficult. The muscle, nerve, and spinal cord all seem to be feasible sites to restore motor function. The pros and cons from this study may be helpful in deciding the best site for a particular application, but further tests are needed in the chronically transected spinal cord to assess the applicability of these results to human patients.

元の言語English
ページ(範囲)1-11
ページ数11
ジャーナルIEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
12
発行部数1
DOI
出版物ステータスPublished - 01-03-2004

Fingerprint

Spinal Nerve Roots
Electric Stimulation
Muscle
Spinal Cord
Cats
Muscles
Animals
Extremities
Articular Range of Motion
Spinal Cord Injuries
Electrodes
Reference Values
Stroke
Direction compound
Gray Matter

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications

これを引用

@article{ca325591ba4e443a87a93b6104295483,
title = "Movements Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles, Nerves, Intermediate Spinal Cord, and Spinal Roots in Anesthetized and Decerebrate Cats",
abstract = "Electrical stimulation offers the possibility of restoring motor function of paralyzed limbs after spinal-cord injury or stroke, but few data are available to compare possible sites of stimulation, such as muscle, nerve, spinal roots, or spinal cord. The aim of this study was to establish some characteristics of stimulation at these sites in the anesthetized and midcollicular decerebrate cat. The hind limb was constrained to move in the sagitral plane against a spring load. Ventral-root stimulation only produced movements down and back; the direction moved systematically backward the more caudal the stimulated roots. In contrast, dorsal-root stimulation only produced movements up and forward. Thus, neither method alone could produce the full range of normal movements. Muscle, nerve, and intraspinal stimulation within the intermediate regions of the gray matter generated discrete, selective movements in a wide range of directions. Muscle stimulation required an order of magnitude more current. Single microwire electrodes located in the spinal gray matter could activate a synergistic group of muscles, and generally had graded recruitment curves, but the direction of movement occasionally changed abruptly as stimulus strength increased. Nerve stimulation produced the largest movements against the spring load (>80{\%} of the passive range of motion) and was the most reproducible from animal to animal. However, recruitment curves with nerve stimulation were quite steep, so fine control of movement might be difficult. The muscle, nerve, and spinal cord all seem to be feasible sites to restore motor function. The pros and cons from this study may be helpful in deciding the best site for a particular application, but further tests are needed in the chronically transected spinal cord to assess the applicability of these results to human patients.",
author = "Yoichiro Aoyagi and Mushahwar, {Vivian K.} and Stein, {Richard B.} and Arthur Prochazka",
year = "2004",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1109/TNSRE.2003.823268",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
pages = "1--11",
journal = "IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering",
issn = "1534-4320",
publisher = "Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Movements Elicited by Electrical Stimulation of Muscles, Nerves, Intermediate Spinal Cord, and Spinal Roots in Anesthetized and Decerebrate Cats

AU - Aoyagi, Yoichiro

AU - Mushahwar, Vivian K.

AU - Stein, Richard B.

AU - Prochazka, Arthur

PY - 2004/3/1

Y1 - 2004/3/1

N2 - Electrical stimulation offers the possibility of restoring motor function of paralyzed limbs after spinal-cord injury or stroke, but few data are available to compare possible sites of stimulation, such as muscle, nerve, spinal roots, or spinal cord. The aim of this study was to establish some characteristics of stimulation at these sites in the anesthetized and midcollicular decerebrate cat. The hind limb was constrained to move in the sagitral plane against a spring load. Ventral-root stimulation only produced movements down and back; the direction moved systematically backward the more caudal the stimulated roots. In contrast, dorsal-root stimulation only produced movements up and forward. Thus, neither method alone could produce the full range of normal movements. Muscle, nerve, and intraspinal stimulation within the intermediate regions of the gray matter generated discrete, selective movements in a wide range of directions. Muscle stimulation required an order of magnitude more current. Single microwire electrodes located in the spinal gray matter could activate a synergistic group of muscles, and generally had graded recruitment curves, but the direction of movement occasionally changed abruptly as stimulus strength increased. Nerve stimulation produced the largest movements against the spring load (>80% of the passive range of motion) and was the most reproducible from animal to animal. However, recruitment curves with nerve stimulation were quite steep, so fine control of movement might be difficult. The muscle, nerve, and spinal cord all seem to be feasible sites to restore motor function. The pros and cons from this study may be helpful in deciding the best site for a particular application, but further tests are needed in the chronically transected spinal cord to assess the applicability of these results to human patients.

AB - Electrical stimulation offers the possibility of restoring motor function of paralyzed limbs after spinal-cord injury or stroke, but few data are available to compare possible sites of stimulation, such as muscle, nerve, spinal roots, or spinal cord. The aim of this study was to establish some characteristics of stimulation at these sites in the anesthetized and midcollicular decerebrate cat. The hind limb was constrained to move in the sagitral plane against a spring load. Ventral-root stimulation only produced movements down and back; the direction moved systematically backward the more caudal the stimulated roots. In contrast, dorsal-root stimulation only produced movements up and forward. Thus, neither method alone could produce the full range of normal movements. Muscle, nerve, and intraspinal stimulation within the intermediate regions of the gray matter generated discrete, selective movements in a wide range of directions. Muscle stimulation required an order of magnitude more current. Single microwire electrodes located in the spinal gray matter could activate a synergistic group of muscles, and generally had graded recruitment curves, but the direction of movement occasionally changed abruptly as stimulus strength increased. Nerve stimulation produced the largest movements against the spring load (>80% of the passive range of motion) and was the most reproducible from animal to animal. However, recruitment curves with nerve stimulation were quite steep, so fine control of movement might be difficult. The muscle, nerve, and spinal cord all seem to be feasible sites to restore motor function. The pros and cons from this study may be helpful in deciding the best site for a particular application, but further tests are needed in the chronically transected spinal cord to assess the applicability of these results to human patients.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=1542409175&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=1542409175&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1109/TNSRE.2003.823268

DO - 10.1109/TNSRE.2003.823268

M3 - Article

VL - 12

SP - 1

EP - 11

JO - IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering

JF - IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering

SN - 1534-4320

IS - 1

ER -