Infected or damaged tissues release multiple “alert” molecules such as alarmins and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that are recognized by innate immune receptors, and induce tissue inflammation, regeneration, and repair. Recently, an extract from inflamed rabbit skin inoculated with vaccinia virus (Neurotropin®, NTP) was found to induce infarct tolerance in mice receiving permanent ischemic attack to the middle cerebral artery. Likewise, we report herein that NTP prevented the neurite retraction in PC12 cells by nerve growth factor (NGF) deprivation. This effect was accompanied by interaction of Fyn with high-affinity NGF receptor TrkA. Sucrose density gradient subcellular fractionation of NTP-treated cells showed heretofore unidentified membrane fractions with a high-buoyant density containing Trk, B subunit of cholera toxin-bound ganglioside, flotillin-1 and Fyn. Additionally, these new membrane fractions also contained Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Inhibition of TLR4 function by TAK-242 prevented the formation of these unidentified membrane fractions and suppressed neuroprotection by NTP. These observations indicate that NTP controls TrkA-mediated signaling through the formation of clusters of new membrane microdomains, thus providing a platform for crosstalk between neurotrophic and innate immune receptors. Neuroprotective mechanisms through the interaction with innate immune systems may provide novel mechanism for neuroprotection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry