ONO 3403, a new synthetic serine protease inhibitor, is a derivative of camostat mesilate and has a higher protease-inhibitory activity. The effect of ONO 3403 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells was examined. ONO 3403 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production at a lower concentration than camostat mesilate. It also inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Their inhibition was responsible for the reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α and inducible NO synthase. In LPS-stimulated cells, ONO 3403 prevented the augmentation of MyD88 expression and inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and IRF-3, and the production of interferon-β. ONO 3403 abolished the elevation of the extracellular serine protease activity in response to LPS. Further, it reduced the circulating TNF-α level, hepatic injury and mortality in mice receiving an injection of D-galactosamine and LPS. ONO 3403 was suggested to inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses via inactivation of MyD88-dependent and independent pathways.
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