Drought is one of the severe environmental stresses threatening agriculture around the globe. Nitric oxide plays diverse roles in plant growth and defensive responses. Despite a few studies supporting the role of nitric oxide in plants under drought responses, little is known about its pivotal molecular amendment in the regulation of stress signaling. In this study, a label-free nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach was used to determine the effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced osmotic stress in banana roots. Plant treatment with SNP improved plant growth and reduced the percentage of yellow leaves. A total of 30 and 90 proteins were differentially identified in PEG+SNP against PEG and PEG+SNP against the control, respectively. The majority of proteins differing between them were related to carbohydrate and energy metabolisms. Antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, decreased in SNP-Treated banana roots compared to PEG-Treated banana. These results suggest that the nitric oxide-induced osmotic stress tolerance could be associated with improved carbohydrate and energy metabolism capability in higher plants.
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