Purpose: This study was performed to compare the outcome of lung transplantation (LT) for idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) with that of LT for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We reviewed, retrospectively, all adult patients who underwent LT for IPPFE or IPF in Japan between 1998 and 2018. Results: There were 100 patients eligible for this study (31 with IPPFE and 69 with IPF). Patients with IPPFE tended to have a significantly lower body mass index (BMI) than those with IPF (median, 16.7 vs. 22.6 kg/m2, respectively; P < 0.01). However, Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed no significant difference in overall survival between the groups. The BMI did not increase in patients with IPPFE, even 1 year after LT (pretransplant, 16.5 ± 3.2 kg/m2 vs. 1 year post-transplant, 15.6 ± 2.5 kg/m2; P = 0.08). The percent predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) 1 year after LT was significantly lower in the IPPFE group than in the IPF group (48.4% ± 19.5% vs. 68.6% ± 15.5%, respectively; P < 0.01). Conclusions: Despite extrapulmonary problems such as a flat chest, low BMI, and associated restrictive impairment persisting in patients with IPPFE, patient survival after LT for IPPFE or IPF was equivalent.
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