The ultimate goal of periodontal disease treatment is the reorganization of functional tissue that can regenerate lost periodontal tissue. Regeneration of periodontal tissues is clinically possible by using autogenic transplantation of MSCs. However, autologous MSC transplantation is limited depending on age, systemic disease and tissue quality, thus precluding their clinical application. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of allogeneic transplantation of adipose-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPC) in a micro-mini pig periodontal defect model. ADMPC were isolated from the greater omentum of micro-mini pigs, and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the ADMPC expressed MSC markers, including CD44 and CD73. ADMPC exhibited osteogenic, adipogenic and periodontal ligament differentiation capacities in differentiation medium. ADMPC showed high expression of the immune suppressive factors GBP4 and IL1-RA upon treatment with a cytokine cocktail containing interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6. Allogeneic transplantation of ADMPC in a micro-mini pig periodontal defect model showed significant bone regeneration ability based on bone-morphometric analysis. Moreover, the regeneration ability of ADMPC by allogeneic transplantation was comparable to those of autologous transplantation by histological analysis. These results indicate that ADMPC have immune-modulation capability that can induce periodontal tissue regeneration by allogeneic transplantation.
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