Aims/hypothesis: Resistin is a cytokine derived from adipose tissue and is implicated in obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Polymorphisms of the resistin gene (RETN) have been shown to affect the plasma resistin concentration. The aims of this study were to identify polymorphisms of RETN that influence plasma resistin concentration and to clarify the relation between plasma resistin level and metabolic disorders in an aged Japanese cohort. Methods: The study participants comprised 3133 individuals recruited to a population-based prospective cohort study (KING study). Plasma resistin concentration, BMI, abdominal circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations, HbA1c content and serum lipid profile were measured in all participants. The HOMA index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also calculated. Eleven polymorphisms of RETN were genotyped. Results: A combination of ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis in screening and large-scale subsets of the study population revealed that plasma resistin concentration was significantly associated with rs34861192 and rs3745368 polymorphisms of RETN. Multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for age and sex also showed that the plasma resistin level was significantly associated with serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol and insulin, as well as with BMI. Conclusions/interpretation: Our results implicate the rs34861192 and rs3745368 polymorphisms of RETN as robust and independent determinants of plasma resistin concentration in the study population. In addition, plasma resistin level was associated with dyslipidaemia, serum insulin concentration and obesity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00262691 Funding: This study was supported by Grants-in-Aids for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan.
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