Association between response to antidepressant treatment and genetic polymorphisms was examined in two independent Japanese samples of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genome-wide approach using the Illumina Human CNV370-quad Bead Chip was utilized in the analysis of the 92 MDD patients in the first sample. In all, 11 non-intergenic single-nucleotide polymorphisms with uncorrected allelic P-value <0.0001 were selected for the subsequent association analyses in the second sample of 136 MDD patients. Difference in allele distribution between responders and nonresponders were found in the second-stage sample for rs365836 and rs201522 of the CUX1 gene (P=0.005 and 0.004, respectively). The allelic P-values for rs365836 and rs201522 in both samples combined were 0.0000023 and 0.0000040, respectively. Our results provide the first evidence that polymorphisms of the CUX1 gene may be associated with response to antidepressant treatment in Japanese patients with MDD.
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