Objectives: We assessed the usefulness of differential diagnosis of parkinsonism by evaluating lesions of the decussation of the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) using a new MRI procedure known as readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains (RESOLVE). Methods: We evaluated 100 cases, consisting of 20 with PSP, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), 13 with multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism (MSA-P), 18 with multiple system atrophy with predominant cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C), and 24 controls. All patients were scored on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III and the Scale for the Assessment and Rating Scale of Ataxia, and MRI using RESOLVE was conducted. Results: Images acquired by this MRI procedure clearly showed high intensity areas corresponding to the decussation of the SCP in all controls, PD, and MSA patients. In contrast, ten of the 20 PSP patients exhibited abnormal iso intensities of the decussation of the SCP, while the other 10 showed high intensity signals. Among the PSP patients, there were no differences in clinical features between those with and those without visualization of the decussation of the SCP. Iso intensity signals had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 100% for differentiating PSP from PD, MSA, and controls. Conclusion: This MRI procedure (RESOLVE) shows a potential for detecting the involvement of the decussation of the SCP in PSP, and can be used for discriminating PSP from PD and MSA-P.
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