Background: When facing unprecedented emergencies such as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a predictive artificial intelligence (AI) model with real-time customized designs can be helpful for clinical decision-making support in constantly changing environments. We created models and compared the performance of AI in collaboration with a clinician and that of AI alone to predict the need for supplemental oxygen based on local, non-image data of patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods: We enrolled 30 patients with COVID-19 who were aged >60 years on admission and not treated with oxygen therapy between December 1, 2020 and January 4, 2021 in this 50-bed, single-center retrospective cohort study. The outcome was requirement for oxygen after admission. Results: The model performance to predict the need for oxygen by AI in collaboration with a clinician was better than that by AI alone. Sodium chloride difference >33.5 emerged as a novel indicator to predict the need for oxygen in patients with COVID-19. To prevent severe COVID-19 in older patients, dehydration compensation may be considered in pre-hospitalization care. Conclusion: In clinical practice, our approach enables the building of a better predictive model with prompt clinician feedback even in new scenarios. These can be applied not only to current and future pandemic situations but also to other diseases within the healthcare system.
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