This Review Article overviews the literature on diabetes insipidus (DI) associated with pregnancy and labor in Japan published from 1982 to 2019. The total number of patients collected was 361, however, only one-third of these cases had detailed pathophysiologic information enabling us to identify the respective etiology and subtype. Pregnancy associated DI can be divided into 3 etiologies, central (neurogenic) DI, nephrogenic DI, and excess vasopressinase associated DI. Neurogenic DI has various causes: For example, DI associated with tumoral lesions in the pituitary and neighboring area, DI associated with Sheehan’s syndrome and/or pituitary apoplexy, and DI associated with lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH, stalkitis). Nephrogenic DI results from defective response of the kidney to normal levels of vasopressin. However, the most interesting causal factor of pregnancy-associated DI is excess vasopressinase, caused either by excess production of vasopressinase by the placenta or defective clearance of vasopressinase by the liver. Hepatic complications resulting in pregnancy-associated DI include acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) and HELLP syndrome (syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets), as well as pre-existing or co-incidental hepatic diseases. A possible role of glucose uptake in putative stress-induced DI and the importance of correct diagnosis and treatment of pregnancy-associated DI, including use of 1-deamino 8-D arginine vasopressin, are also discussed.
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