Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a small round cell sarcoma that mainly develops in the central nervous system and soft tissues of childhood; however recently, primary occurrence of this tumor in the kidney has been reported. We experienced one case of PNET primarily arose in the kidney without metastasis. The patient was a 28-year-old man whose chief complaint was abdominal pain, especially on exercise. On computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging, a solid lesion was found in the left kidney, and a left nephrectomy was performed based on the diagnosis of a tumor in the left kidney. The tumor was within the parenchyma of lower end of left kidney protruding into the abdominal cavity. Histologically, diffuse proliferation of primitive small round cells with rosette formation was found. Immunohistochemically, MIC2 gene product, neuron-specific enolase and S-100 protein were positive. No metastasis to the regional lymph nodes was found. From these observations, the tumor was diagnosed as PNET primarily arising in the left kidney. Although chromosome analysis was not performed, EWS-FLI1 chimera gene was identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on the freshly frozen specimen and fluorescence in situ hybridization on paraffin sections.
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