Background: Myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-related nephritis (MPO-ANCA nephritis) is occasionally accompanied by lung abnormalities such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, the clinical features of pulmonary fibrosis in patients with MPO-ANCA nephritis have not been well documented. This study was performed to compare the prognosis of a usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern of lung fibrosis in patients with MPO-ANCA nephritis with the prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 126 patients with MPO-ANCA nephritis and identified 31 with a UIP pattern of lung fibrosis on high-resolution or thin-slice computed tomography (CT). We compared the characteristics and prognosis of these patients with those of 32 patients with IPF. In 18 patients from both groups, we assessed and compared the decline in lung volume over time using three-dimensional (3D) CT images reconstructed from thin-section CT data. Results: The numbers of male and female patients were nearly equal among patients with MPO-ANCA nephritis exhibiting a UIP pattern; in contrast, significant male dominancy was observed among patients with IPF (p = 0.0021). Significantly fewer smokers were present among the patients with MPO-ANCA nephritis with a UIP pattern than among those with IPF (p = 0.0062). There was no significant difference in the median survival time between patients with MPO-ANCA nephritis with a UIP pattern (50.8 months) and IPF (55.8 months; p = 0.65). All patients with IPF in this cohort received antifibrotic therapy (pirfenidone or nintedanib). Almost half of the deaths that occurred in patients with MPO-ANCA nephritis with a UIP pattern were caused by non-respiratory-related events, whereas most deaths in patients with IPF were caused by respiratory failure such as acute exacerbation. In the 3D CT lung volume analyses, the rate of decline in lung volume was equivalent in both groups. Conclusions: MPO-ANCA nephritis with a UIP pattern on CT may have an unfavorable prognosis equivalent to that of IPF with a UIP pattern treated with antifibrotic agents.
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