Propolis possesses several immunological functions. We recently generated a conditional Ca2+ biosensor yellow cameleon (YC3.60) transgenic mouse line and established a five-dimensional (5D) (x, y, z, time, and Ca2+ signaling) system for intravital imaging of lymphoid tissues, including Peyer's patches (PPs). To assess the effects of propolis on immune cells, we analyzed Ca2+ signaling in vitro and in vivo using CD11c-Cre/YC3.60flox transgenic mice, in which CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) specifically express YC3.60. We found that propolis induced Ca2+ signaling in DCs in the PPs. Intravital imaging of PPs also showed that an intraperitoneal injection of propolis augmented Ca2+ signaling in CD11c+ cells, suggesting that propolis possesses immune-stimulating activity. Furthermore, CD11c+ cells in PPs in mice administrated propolis indicated an increase in Ca2+ signaling. Our results indicate that propolis induces immunogenicity under physiological conditions.
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