Background: The objective of this study was to categorize prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response during cabazitaxel therapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) into different patterns and to investigate the prognostic impact of the PSA response patterns. Methods: We reviewed data from patients with mCRPC who had been treated with cabazitaxel therapy at four institutions belonging to Tokai Urologic Oncology Research Seminar. Patients eligible for this study had received at least three cycles of cabazitaxel treatment at three-or four-week intervals. The PSA response patterns were categorized as primary resistance (PR), response (RE), stabilization (ST), and fluctuating (FL). The overall survival (OS) was compared among the patterns. Results: Data from a total of 50 patients were analyzed in this study. The number of patients exhibiting PR, RE, ST and FL patterns were 18 (36%), 14 (28%), 12 (24%) and 6 (12%), respectively. The median (95% CI) OS of patients with PR and RE patterns was 10.7 (5.6-15.9) and 14.9 (6.8-23.0) months, respectively, and was not reached for patients with ST and FL patterns. The OS of patients with the FL pattern was significantly better than that of patients with PR (P = 0.012) and RE (P = 0.010) patterns. Conclusion: There were some patients whose PSA were fluctuating during cabazitaxel therapy in patients with mCRPC. Because the prognosis of such patients was relatively good, the judgment to discontinue the cabazitaxel therapy after PSA rise followed by decrease should be made prudently.
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