Recent molecular studies have revealed that the GM-CSF/RAS signaling pathway plays a central role in the pathogenesis of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). CFU-GM colony assay is an important test for GM-CSF hypersensitivity in patients with JMML, but requires specific skills. We established a simple and easy quantification method to test GM-CSF hypersensitivity, using a 3H-thymidine assay. With this quantification method, JMML patients with RAS mutations showed significantly higher GM-CSF sensitivity than JMML patients with PTPN11 mutations. This method will be useful not only in the diagnosis of JMML, but also to evaluate the difference of GM-CSF sensitivity among patients.
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