Ras is a signal-transducing, guanine nucleotide-binding protein for various membrane receptors including tyrosine kinase receptors. Ras participates in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphology. Activated ras oncogenes have been identified in various forms of human cancer including epithelial carcinomas of the lung, colon, and pancreas. The cells of these cancers, as well as those that have been experimentally transformed by the activated ras gene, exhibit abnormal growth, morphological changes and alterations of cell adhesions. Although the main effector protein has been thought to be Raf serine/threonine kinase, research has revealed that the Ras-induced signaling pathway is mediated by multiple effector proteins and has the crosstalk with various factors containing other small GTPases. In this review, we summarize the involvement of each effector protein for Ras and the crosstalk with other small GTPases in Ras-induced transformation.
|ジャーナル||Journal of Biochemistry|
|出版ステータス||Published - 1999|
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