Background: Few studies have focused on the association between history of ischemic stroke at predialysis stage and mortality after dialysis initiation. Objective: To examine whether history of stroke in incident dialysis patients is associated with mortality, including all-cause and cardiovascular (CV)-related mortality. Methods: The study database was derived from the Aichi Cohort Study of Prognosis in Patients Newly Initiated into Dialysis, a multicenter, prospective, cohort analysis. We classified patients into 2 groups according to their history of ischemic stroke and compared their outcomes. Propensity scores (PSs) represented the probability of being assigned to a group with or without a history of ischemic stroke. We defined the following outcomes: All-cause mortality; CV-related mortality; non-CV-related mortality; infection-related mortality; and stroke event after dialysis initiation. Factors contributing to the outcomes were examined using stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results: All-cause mortality was significantly higher in the ischemic stroke group (log-rank test p < 0.001). All-cause, non-CV-related, and infection-related mortality and stroke event after dialysis initiation were significantly higher in the ischemic stroke group after PS matching (log-rank test: P < 0.001, <0.001, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively). History of ischemic stroke was associated with all-cause mortality in univariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.85, 95% CI 1.44-2.37). History of ischemic stroke before dialysis initiation was associated with all-cause mortality in multivariate analysis (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.85). Conclusion: The present study revealed that history of ischemic stroke before dialysis initiation was associated with all-cause, non-CV-related, and infection-related mortality and stroke event after dialysis initiation during maintenance dialysis.
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